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石油液化气储罐泄漏事故后果类型分析

时间:2010-04-15 11:19来源:未知 作者:chuguan 点击:
石油液化气储罐泄漏事故后果类型分析
  

       液化石油气是从油气田或石油炼制过程中得到的一部分碳氢化合物,主要成分为C3、C4烷烃。液化石油气(LPG)是重要的燃料及化工原料,同时也是一种易燃、易爆的危险物质,在生产运输、储存和使用过程中极易发生事故。随着液化石油气在工业与民用方面的广泛应用,国内外因操作和管理不慎而发生的液化石油气火灾爆炸事故屡见不鲜。1984年11月19日,墨西哥市郊外国家石油公司液化石储运站发生泄漏并引发爆炸,造成650人死亡,6000人受伤。1998年3月5日,西安市煤气公司液化石油气管理所发生严重泄漏爆炸事故,共造成12人死亡,32人受伤,10万居民疏散。这些事故造成的人身伤亡及财产损失等都极为严重。因此,对液化石油气储罐及其管路的事故后果进行分析,提出相应的对策措施,对预防重大事故的发生具有重要意义。

     YEHUASHIYOUQIZHUYAOWEIXIANXINGFENXI

     1.YIRAN、YIBAOXING

     YEHUASHIYUKONGQIHUNHEHOU,YIDANYUDAOHUOZHONG,SHENZHISHISHITOUYUJINSHUZHUANGJIHUOMOCADEJINGDIANHUOHUA,DOUNENGXUNSUYINQIRANSHAO。YEHUASHIYOUQIDEBAOZHAJIXIANWEI1.5%~9.5%,BAOZHAFANWEIKUANQIEBAOZHAXIAXIANDI,XIELOUKUOSANHOUHENRONGYIFASHENGBAOZHA。YEHUASHIYOUQIRANSHAOREZHIGAO,RANSHAOSUDUKUAI。QIRANSHAOREZHISHIJIAOLUMEIQIDE5BEI,YANMEIFARELIANGDE2BEI,BAOZHASHIRANSHAOSUDUWEIMEIMIAOSHUBAIMIDAOSHUQIANMI,HUOYANWENDUGAOYU2000℃,ZHEHUOSHIREFUSHEHENQIANG,JIYIYINRANYINBAOZHOUWEIYIRANYIBAOWUZHI,SHIHUOSHIKUODA。

     2.HUIFASHENG

     YEHUASHIYOUQICHANGYAFEIDIANDI(LIRUBINGWANWEI-42.1℃),YIDANCONGRONGQIHUOGUANDAOZHONGXIELOUCHULAI,YOUYUYALIDEJIANGDI,BIANKEJIJUQIHUA,TIJIJIANGHUIZHOURANPENGZHANG250BEIZUOYOU,BINGNENGXUNSUKUOSANMANYAN。YEHUASHIYOUQIQITAIBIZHONGSHIKONGQIDE1.5~2.5BEI,YIDANXIELOU,YIZAIDIWAHUOTONGFENGBULIANGCHUWOCUN,ZAIPINGDISHANGNENGYANDIMIANXUNSUKUOSANZHIYUANCHU,ERBUSHIKUOSANDAOKONGQIZHONGQU,GENGYINIANGCHENGBAOZHASHIGU。

     3.SHOUREYIPENGZHANGXING

     YEHUASHIYOUQIREPENGZHANGXISHUGAO,WENDUYUEGAO,PENGZHANGYUEDA。RONGQIZAIMANYEQINGKUANGXIA,WENDUYIDANSHENGGAO,RONGQINEIYALIHUIJISHENGGAO。DANGYEHUASHIYOUQIXIELOUHOUFASHENGRANSHAOBAOZHASHI,ZHOUWEIQITACHUGUANSHOUDAOHUOYANSHAOKAO,YALIHUIXUNSUZENGGAO,CONGERFASHENGWULIBAOZHA,CHANSHENGBAOZHASUIPIAN,ZAOCHENGXINDERANSHAOBAOZHA,XINGCHENGDUOMINUOLIANSUOFANYING。

     4.YICHANSHENGJINGDIAN

     YEHUASHIYOUQIDEDIANZULVGAODA106~1010Ω?m,DANGQICONGRONGQI、SHEBEI、GUANDAOZHONGPENCHUSHI,JIYIYINMOCACHANSHENGJINGDIAN,CHANSHENGFANGDIANHUOHUA,YINQIKERANQITIRANSHAOHUOBAOZHA。YEHUASHIYOUQIZHONGHANYOUDEYETIHUOGUTIZAZHIYUEDUO,LIUSUYUEKUAI,CHANSHENGDEJINGDIANHEYUEDUO。

     5.NENGYINQIZHONGDUZHIXI

      GAONONGDUDEYEHUAWANTINGBEIDALIANGXIRURENTINEI,JIUHUIZAOCHENGZHONGDU,SHIRENHUNMI、OUTUHUOYOUBUYUKUAIDEGANJUE,YANZHONGSHIKESHIRENZHIXISIWANG。

    6.RONGJIEXING

    CIWAI,YEHUASHIYOUQIXIELOUHOU,HUICONGZHOUWEIHUANJINGZHONGXISHOUDALIANGRELIANGQIHUA,CONGERSHIWENDUJISHUAJIANGDI,ZHIRENDONGSHANG。

    SHIGUHOUGUOFENXI

    YEHUASHIYOUQIHUOZAIBAOZHASHIGUDADOUYUANYUXIELOU。YEHUASHIYOUQIDEXIELOUKEFENWEI3ZHONGQINGKUANG:ZAINANXINGDECHUGUANSHUNJIANXIELOU、CHUGUANLIEKOUCHULIANXUXIELOUHEGUANLULIANXUXIELOU。QIZHONG,CHUGUANSHUNJIANXIELOUYOUKENENGFENWEICHUGUANRESHIXIAO(LIRUHUOYANHONGKAO)HELENGSHIXIAO2ZHONGQINGKUANG。

    1.灾难性的储罐瞬间泄漏

    储罐热失效:将会立即点火、导致沸腾液体扩散蒸气云爆炸(BLEVE),产生火球。

    CHUGUANLENGSHIXIAO:JIAYAYEHUAQICHUGUANDEZAINANXINGSHIXIAOJIANGCHANSHENGBUFENYEHUAQIDESHANZHENG,TONGSHITUANLIUDEKONGQIBEIJUANRUZHEIZHONGZHENGQI-YEDIQIYUN。KEYIXIANGXIANG,YOUYUYUDIMIANHEZHOUWEIHUANJINGJIANDEZUOYONG,XIELOUWUDEDONGLIANGJIANGBUDUANSUNSHI,ZHIZHIZUIHOUYUZHOUWEIDEHUANJINGJIANJIANLIQIPINGHENGGUANXI,BINGSUIZHUDAOFENGXIANGYIQIPIAOYIKUOSAN。RUGUOXIELOUWUDEDONGLIANGMEIYOUSUNSHI,BINGQIEMEIYOUXIANZHUDEFENGLIU,NEIMEZAIDONGLIANGDEQUDONGXIA,XIELOUWUJIANGKENENGJUANRUDALIANGDEKONGQI,YIXISHIYUNTUANDAOLELYIXIA,XINGCHENGYISIGUANWEIZHONGXINDEQIYUN。GENJUDIANHUOTIAOJIANBUTONG,QIYUNKEFASHENGBUTONGSHIGUHOUGUO。

    ●LIJIDIANRANCHANSHENGBLEVEHUOQIU:YINMOCAJINGDIAN、DIANQILEHUOHUA、MINGHUODENGERFASHENGLIJIDIANRAN,CONGERCHANSHENGBLEVEHUOQIU。

    ●YANCHIDIANHUOFASHENGSHANHUO(FF)HUOZHENGQIYUNBAO(VCE):FASHENGZAINANXINGXIELOUSHI,LIJIDIANRANDEGAILVJIAODI,DUOSHUQINGKUANGXIAHUISUIZHEZHUDAOFENGXIANGYIQIPIAOYIKUOSAN。CISHI,RUOYINGJICHUZHIBUDANGSHI,QIYUNHUIZAIKUOSANGUOCHENGZHONGYUDAODIANHUOYUAN,FASHENGYANCHIDIANHUO,DAOZHISHANHUO(FF)HUOZHENGQIYUNBAO(VCE)。

    ●BUDIANRAN:RUOYINGJICHUZHIDEDANG, QIYUNHUIZAIKUOSANGUOCHENGZHONGBUHUIFASHENGDIANRAN,JINXINGCHENGFUXINGYUNTUAN,BUHUICHANSHENGYANZHONGDESHIGUHOUGUO。

   2.储罐裂品处连续泄漏

    CHUGUANLIEKOUCHULIANXUXIELOU,YEJIANGXINGCHENGZHENGQI-YEDIQIYUN,BINGQIESUIZHEKUOSANDEJINXINGFASHENGYANCHISHANHUOHEZHENGQIYUNBAO,YEKENENGBUDIANRAN,JINXINGCHENGFUXINGYUNTUAN。TU2WEIYEHUASHIYOUQICHUGUANLIEKOUCHULIANXUXIELOUDESHIJIANSHU。

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